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The study examined the effects of flood risk levels on food security, livelihood and socio-economic characteristics in the flood-prone areas of the core Niger Delta, Nigeria using a descriptive survey design and 790 respondents were selected with the aid of a multistage stratified sampling technique in Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers States, representing the core Niger Delta. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis and presentation of data. The findings of the study showed that 75.3% of the respondents agreed that basic food is scarce after all flood incident. However, 69.9% attested to the fact that growth and development of crops are affected when flood washes away farmlands. It can also be seen that flood increases food insecurity, unavailability of staple food and malnutrition as agreed by 78.3% of the total respondents. Furthermore, 77.1% of respondents agreed that flood increases the inability of plants to absorb essential nutrients necessary for proper growth while 71.4% agreed that flooding leads to the erosion or loss of the nutritional status of crops planted in the communities. Also, 69.9% agreed that the washing away of farmlands have led to chronic, long-lasting food insecurity in the communities. Further evidence from the study shows that 75.6% of respondents agreed that the incident of flood leads to acute food insecurity which affects the livelihood of the residents. It is also revealed that flood affects households or residents' investments (64.7%) and losing occupation and source of income from flooding leads to difficulty in caring for the children (60.9%). It is concluded that floods have reduced the efficiencies of farmland in terms of food production causing food insecurity, income reduction and poor livelihood among the residents of the core the Niger Delta States. The study, therefore, recommended that communities should advocate, promote and inculcate the spirit of the commitment of individuals and households towards the continued and holistic development (via social, economic, health, and infrastructural), food security, and increased livelihood in flood-prone communities. The Ministry of Agriculture should ensure that smart agriculture is adopted as a way out to resolve the issues of flood-induced food insecurity and structural measures like dams, culverts, drainages and ditches should be constructed by government and her intervention agencies to accommodate and reduce the runoff or overflow of floodwaters which causes severe social, economic and infrastructural damages or impacts during flooding.
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