Effects of Time and Land Use Land Cover Change (LULCC) in the Dimension of the Gully Expansion and Soil Particles Loss at Ibeziako Erosion Site in Nsukka Urban, Enugu State, Nigeria
Asian Journal of Geographical Research
Almost all parts of the world are threatened by one type of hazards such as soil erosion, flooding, landslide, earthquake, among others. Various types of soil erosion exist which include splash, sheet, rill and gully erosion. Gully erosion has been recognized as an important environmental threat in many parts of the world and remains the world’s biggest problem affecting the lives of man, plants and animals. Gully erosion occurs in various parts of Nigeria under geologic, climatic and soil conditions. The purpose of this study is to look at flood and soil erosion in Nsukka Urban and the erosive activities of the floods along its path ways. The study used both primary and secondary data comprising measurements, oral interviews, photographs, and satellite imageries. This study adopted a mixed method approach in data analysis and representation with ArcGIS version 10.4 software as the major analytical tool used, other calculations were either manually performed or were calculated using Microsoft Excel 2007.The results of the satellite imageries analyzed, were rendered in tables and maps. The soil particles removed from the identified gully site in the study area were calculated and projection of further annual soil loss established, pending when the erosion problem will be addressed. The management, control of flood and soil erosion required to reduce and mitigate against the adverse effect of the gullying were also proffered.
- land use land cover change
- gully expansion
- soil particles loss
- Nsukka Urban
How to Cite
Uchegbu SN. Enviromental Management and Protection. Spotlight Publishers, Enugu, Nigeria; 2002.
Goudie A. The Human Impact on the Natural Environment. Basil Blackwell Ltd, Oxford, UK. 1990;203-229.
Ofomata GEK. Soil Erosion in Nigeria: the views of a Geomorphologist, University of Nigeria Press; Nsukka; 1987.
Mozie AT. Some Observation on the Causative Factors of Gully Erosion in the Ndudo-Nko Gorge, Isiama Igbo, Agulu, Anaocha LGA, Anambra State. Int. Conf on Landslides and Geohazards, Dept of Geology, UNN. 2010;2.
Ogbue PC. The Study of Gully Erosion in Onitsha North LGA, Anambra State. Unpublished BSc. Project, Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 2015.
Ofomata GEK. Geographical Thought; Jamoe Publishers, Enugu, Nigeria; 2001.
Okin GS. Toward a Unified View of Biophysical Land Degradation Processes
in Arid and Semi-arid Lands. In Global Desertification: Do Humans Cause Deserts?
Edited by J.F. Reynolds and D.M. Stafford Smith. Dahlem University Press, Berlin; 2002.
Ofomata GEK. Environment and Man in G.E.K. Ofomata, (ed): The Nsukka Environment, Fourth Dimension Publishers, Enugu; 1978. 475-486.
Igbokwe JI, Akinyede JO, Dang B, Alaga T, Ono MN, Nnodu VC, Anike LO. Mapping and Monitoring of the Impact of Gully Erosion in Southeastern Nigeria using Satellite Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System. International Archives of Photogrammetery, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information. 2008;38:113-126.
Ayadiuno RU, Ndulue DC, Mozie AT, Ndichie CC. The Underlying Factors of Soil Susceptibility to Erosion in Central Parts of Southeastern Nigeria. Alinteri Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 2021a;36(2):196–207.
Ayadiuno RU, Phil-Eze PO, Ajake OA, Nzeadibe TC, Ndulue, DC. Multi-model Analysis of Soil Erosion Susceptibility Areas (SESA) and the Causative Factors in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Generis Publishing; 2022. [online]
Ayadiuno RU. Analysis of Soil Erosion Causative Factors and Susceptibility in Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 2021.
Ndulue DC, Ayadiuno RU, Mozie AT, Ndichie CC. A Comparative Analysis of Soil Erosion Models for Tropical Humid of Southeastern Nigeria and Comparable Environments. Psychology and Education. 2021;58(1):5821-5835.
Ayadiuno RU, Ndulue DC, Ndichie CC, Mozie AT, Phil-Eze PO, Onyekwelu CA. Geospatial Analysis of Soil Erosion Susceptibility and Causative Factors in Anambra State, South East, Nigeria. Scientific Review. 2021b;8(1):5-32.
Adedeji AA. Environmental Hazard: Flooding and Its Effects on Residential Buildings in Ilorin, Ilorin Fotress Press. 2008;67-78.
Egbueri JC, Ogbonnaya I. The Impact of Hydrogeomorphological Characteristics on Gullying Processes in Erosion-prone Geological Units in Parts of Southeast Nigeria. . Geology, Ecology, and Landscape. 2020;5(3).
Adedeji AA. Anthropogenic Activities and Flood Inducement in Urban Environment: The Case Study of Kwara state Nigeria” in Ojo, S.O and Ukeje, J.E (Ed) Africa Proceedings of Sustainable Africa Vol. 5 pp1-4 Nigeria Met Society; 2010.
Okengwo ON, Okeke OC, Okereke CN, Paschal AC. Geological and Geotechnical Studies Of Gully Erosion at Ekwulobia, Oko and Nanka Towns, Southeastern Nigeria. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. 2015;20(1):113–122.
Abolade O, Muili AB, Ikotun SA. Impacts of flood disaster in Agege local government area Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 2013;2(4):2354-2367.
Okoyeh EI, Akpan AE, Egboka B, Okeke HI. An Assessment of the Influences of Surface and Subsurface Water Level Dynamics in the Development of Gullies in Anambra State. Southeastern Nigeria Earth Interactions. 2014;4:1–24.
Aladelokun AO, Ajayi CF. An Appraisal of the Socio-economic Impacts of Urban Flood in Ado-Ekiti Metropolis in Ekiti State. International Journal of Asian Social Science. 2014;4(10):1027-1034
Amangabara GT, Otumchere VN, Understanding the Factors and Processes of the Umuagwo - Urualla Gully Erosion in Ideato North LGA of Imo State Nigeria. Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 2016;3(1):55–67.
Ikechukwu EE. Socio-Economic Impacts of Flooding on the Residents of Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State, Nigeria. Natural Resources. 2015;6:1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2015.61001
Obi NI, Okekeogbu CJ. Erosion Problems and their Impacts in Anambra State of Nigeria: (A Case of Nanka Community). International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research. 2017;1:24– 37.
Obiadi II, Nwosu CM, Ajaegwu NE, Anakwuba EK, Onuigbo NE, Akpunonu EO. Gully Erosion in Anambra State, South East Nigeria: Issues and Solution. International Journal of Environment Sciences. 2011;2:795–804.
Nwilo PC, Olayinka DN, Uwadiegwu I, Adzandeh AE. An Assessment and Mapping of Gully Erosion Hazards in Abia State: A GIS Approach. Journal of Sustainable Development. 2011; 4:196–211.
Amah JI, Aghamelu OP, Omonona OV, Onwe IM. A Study of the Dynamics of Soil Erosion Using RUSLE 2 Modeling and Geospatial Tool in Edda-Afikpo Mesas, South Eastern Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Geology. 2020(4):56– 71.
Amagu AC, Eze SN, Jun-Ichi K, Nweke MO. Geological and Geotechnical Evaluation of Gully Erosion at Nguzu Edda, Afikpo Sub-Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2018;8:148–158.
Amah EA, Esu EO, Kanu EO. Hydrogeological and Geotechnical Investigations of Gully Erosion Sites in Calabar Area. Southeastern Nigeria Global Journal of pure and Applied Sciences. 2008;14:423–431.
Amos-Uhegbu C, John UJ. Geophysical and Geotechnical Evaluation of Erosion Sites in Ebem-Ohafia Area of Abia State, Southern Nigeria. Advances in Research. 2017;10(3):1-14.
Egboka BC, Orji A, Nwankwoala HO. Gully Erosion and Landslides in Southeastern Nigeria: Causes, Consequences and Control Measures. Global Journal of Engineering Sciences. 2019; 2(4):1– 11.
Oluwatayo IB, Olatunji K. Effects of Flooding on the Livelihood and Consumption of Households in Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Economics. 2015; 6(2):169-176.
Ndukwe C, Okeke FI, Nwosu K, Ibe C, Ndukwu R, Ugwuoti A. The Role of Surveying and Mapping in Erosion Management and Control: Case of Omagba Erosion Site, Onitsha Anambra State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2013;3(11).
Nwunonwo UC. GIS-Based Digital Map for Gully Erosion Management in Anambra Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research. 2013;5(9):2649-2653.
Egbueri JC, Igwe O, Unigwe CO. Gully Slope Distribution Characteristics and Stability Analysis for Soil Erosion Risk Ranking in Parts of Southeastern Nigeria: A Case Study. Environ Earth Sci. 2021;80:292–292.
Nwankwoala HO, Igbokwe T. Assessment and Mapping of Gully Erosion Geo-hazards in Agulu - Nanka, Southeastern Nigeria: An Integrated Geotechnical and GIS Approach. An International Scientific Journal. 2020;(146):236–254.
Ocheli A, Ogbe OB, Aigbadon GO. Geology and Geotechnical Investigations of part of the Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria: Implication for Gully Erosion Hazards. Environmental Systems Research. 2021;10:1–6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40068-021-00228-2
Ihinegbu C, Nnadi GS, Madu IA. Analysis of Economic Benefits of Flooding in Alor Uno Community, Nsukka, Enugu State. IIARD International Journal of Geography and Environmental Management. 2019;5(2).
Wagari M, Tamiru H. RUSLE Model Based Annual Soil Loss Quantification for Soil Erosion Protection: A Case of Fincha Catchment, Ethiopia. Air, Soil and Water Research. 2021;14:1–12,
DOI: 10.1177/11786221211046234 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/11786221211046234
Thornthwaite CW. An Approach toward a Rational Classification of Climate.
Geographical Review. 1948;38(1):55– 94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/210739
Inyang PEB. Climate of Nsukka and Environs in G.E.K. Ofomata (ed.). The Nsukka Environment. Fourth Dimension Publishers, Enugu; 1978.
Anyadike RNC. Climate and Vegetation in G.E.K. Ofomata (ed.) A survey of Igbo Nation. African Publisher Limited, Onitsha. 2002; 73-89.
Gilbert GK. Report on the Geology of the Henry Mountains. US Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region. Washington, DC: U.S. Gov. Print. Office; 1877. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.51652
Ofomata GEK. Aspects of the Geomorphology of the Nsukka – Okigwe Cuesta, East Central State of Nigeria. Bulletin de l’IFAN. 1973;35:489- 501.
Akamigbo FOR, Igwe CA, Oranekwulu SC. Soil Variability in Map Units Delineated by Aerial Photo-interpretation: A Case Study in Anambra State, Nigeria. Soil Use and Management. 1994;10(1):6-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.1994.tb00449.x
Ofomata GEK. Soil Erosion in Ofomata, G. E. K. (1975) Nigeria in Maps: Eastern States, Ethiope Press, Benin City; 1975.
Amah JI. Mathematical Modelling of Groundwater Flow System of a Water Table Aquifer in Nsukka Areas, South Eastern Nigeria. Unpublished Msc. Thesis, Department of Geology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 2006.
Ekechukwu LC. Pathway for Harnessing the Tourism Potential of Natural and Cultural Sites and Features on the Nsukka-Okigwe Cuesta. International Journal of Research in Arts and Social Sciences. 2009;1(19).
Unwfp. World Population Prospects 2019 – Population Division; 2019.
Ndulue DC, Ayadiuno RU. Principal Component Analysis of Factors Influencing Mode of Movement in Anambra State, South East Nigeria, Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation. 2021; 32(3)ISSN:2651-4451 |
e-ISSN 2651-446X: 3837 – 3837
Marisawa ME. Streams; their Dynamics and Morphology. McGraw-Hill, New York; 1968.
Ofomata GEK. Basic Geomorphology for Africa. Jamoe Publishers Nigeria. Enugu; 2009.
Ayadiuno RU, Ndulue DC, Mozie AT. A Geomorphological Survey and Landscape Analysis of Anambra State Southeast Nigeria. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2022;26(2):39-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2022/v26i230337
Abua MA, Essoka PA, Uquetan UI, Ashua SW. Sediment Loss Responses to Rainfall on Different Surfaces in Obudu, Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2017;10(4):1-7.
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2017/22200 DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/JGEESI/2017/22200
Fayas CM, Abeysingha NS, Nirmanee KGS, Samaratunga D, Mallawatantri A. Soil Loss Estimation Using RUSLE Model to Prioritize Erosion Control in Kelani River Basin in Sri Lanka. International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2019; 7(2):130–137.
Egboka BCE, Nfor BN, Banlanjo EW. Water Budget Analysis of Agulu Lake in Anambra State, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 2006;10(3):27–30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v10i3.17316
Nwajide CS. Gullying in the Idemili River Catchment, Anambra State, Nigeria: Theory and Cure in S.J. Freeth, C.O. Ofoegbu, K.M. Onuoha, (eds) Natural Hazards in West and Central Africa. International Monograph Series. Vieweg+Teubner Verlag, Wiesbaden. 1992.
Wischmeier WH. A rainfall erosion index for a Universal Soil Loss Equation. Soil Science of America, Proceedings. 1959; 1:246-249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1959.03615995002300030027x
Ofomata GEK, Phil-Eze PO. Geographical Perspectives on Environmental Problem and Management in Nigeria. Jamoe Publishers Enugu, Nigeria; 2007.
Google Earth Image.
Abstract View: 51 times
PDF Download: 12 times