Agricultural Practices and Environmental Degradation in Santa Sub-division, North West Region of Cameroon

Siyir Kinyuy Jocien

Department of Geography, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon.

Nfor Frederick *

Department of Geography, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Agriculture is the mainstay of Cameroon’s economy, engaging an estimated 70 percent of the economically active population and accounting for an estimated 80 percent of the primary sector’s contribution to the country’s GDP. It also provides 1/3 of foreign exchange earnings and 15 percent of the country’s budgetary resources. This study set out to investigate agricultural practices and environmental degradation in Santa Sub-division, North West Region of Cameroon. The major types of agricultural practices studied were food crop, market gardening and animal farming. The study made use of primary and secondary data sources. Primary data sources included field observation, interviews and questionnaires. A total of 170 questionnaires were administered using stratified random sampling technique and the data obtained was complemented by secondary sources from published and unpublished materials. Findings revealed that agricultural practices have precarious impacts on the environment in Santa. Climate change was seen to have a silver lining in the crop sector. Declining soil fertility and climate change were some of the major problems faced by farmers in Santa. Adaptation measures amongst others were mixed crop farming, crop rotation, soil management practices and mulching. The study recommended the need to determine the carrying capacity of various grazing, range lands and regulatory control of herd size. This study also proposes the adoption of climate-smart agriculture to minimize the effects of climate change on agriculture in Santa. Farmers in Santa should strengthen their economic security by adopting sustainable agricultural systems, and targeting their production to take advantage of new demands and consumption patterns.

Keywords: Agricultural practices, grazing, market gardening, environmental degradation, Santa Sub-Division

How to Cite

Jocien , S. K. ., & Frederick, N. . (2022). Agricultural Practices and Environmental Degradation in Santa Sub-division, North West Region of Cameroon. Asian Journal of Geographical Research, 5(3), 1–17.


Download data is not yet available.


Lambi CM. The environment and development frontier in sub Saharan Africa: some global lessons, Nab Vebtures Bamenda Cameroon; 2010.

Online encyclopaedia of world problems and Human Potentials; 2019.

Schmitt W. Climate change adaptation and development: what is at stake? Keynote address, IHDP Openmeeting, Bonn; 2009.

Ndi Humphrey Ngala, Amawa Sani Gur () Environmental Degradation and the Emergence of Agricultural Frontiers in the North West of CameroonJournal of Sustainable Development. 2014;7(5). DOI:

ISSN 1913-9063 E-ISSN 1913-9071

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), (2006). Policy Implications of International Rice Research Institute Philippines; 2014. DOI:

Mahendra MS, Velhuizen VH.. Food security and sustainable Agriculture: The Challenges in sub Saharan Africa. In African Economic Research Consortium, AERC. Climate Change and Economic Development in sub Saharan Africa. Senior policy Seminar X Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2008:7-8.

Africa Development Report. Agriculture, conservation and food sovereignty. Nature's Matrix: Linking Agriculture, Conservation and Food Sovereignty. 2004;10:1-242.

Food and Agricultural organization. State of World Food Insecurity 2008. Rome: FAO; 2008.

UNEP. Land Degradation Assessment in Dry lands; creating the basis for policy advice at global, national and local level. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP Press; 2006.

Khan SA, Ali A, Baig MN. The linkage between agricultural practices and environmental degradation. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques. 2013;1(1):19-22.

Clark WC. Global Climate Change and Agricultural Production. In Resource and Environmental Constraints on Sustainable Growth in Agricultural Production. Report on a Dialogue, Staff Paper. 1990:90-33.

National Institute of Statistics; 2013.

Molua E, Lambi CM. The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Cameroon. CEEPA Discussion Paper No.17. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria; 2006. DOI:

Amawa, SG. Stream Discharge, Seasonality and Variability along the Bamenda and Adamawa Highlands (Cameroon). Journal of Applied Social Sciences. Bamenda: Unique Printers. 2009;8(1&2).

Fogwe ZN. Montane Resource Exploitation and the Emergence of Gender Issues in Santa Economy of the Western Bamboutous Highlands. International Journal of Geography and Regional Planning Research. 2014;1:1-12.

Santa Council Development Plan; 2014.

Santa Rural Council Monographic Study; 2003.

Ministry Agriculture and Rural Development, Sub-Divisional Delegation of Santa, Annual Report; 2020.

Ministry of Livestock Fisheries and Animal Husbandry (MINEPIA), Sub Divisional Delegation for Santa, Annual Report; 2011.

Shapiro D. Population growth, changing agricultural practices, and environmental degradation in Zaire. Population and Environment. 1995;16(3):221-36. DOI:

UNEP. Frontiers Report; Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern; 2016.

Balgah SN. Landuse and Land Cover Dynamics in Buea and Tiko Sub- Divisions, Cameroon. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Buea, Cameroon; 2005.