Effects of Leasehold on Community Forest Association Benefits in Dryland Resources Management: A Case Study of Kibwezi Forest in Kenya

Main Article Content

John Mwendwa Mugambi
Jane Kagendo
Mulaha Kweyu
Musingo Tito E. Mbuvi


Aims: The aim of this paper was to investigate whether community forest association (CFA) get benefits as they conserve dryland forest that is also fully leased.

Study Design: The paper adapted descriptive survey design. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between the year 2018 December and 2020 January in Kibwezi forest.

Methodology: This study included 139 individuals who were issued with questionnaires (household survey) and 5 officials from forest department who were interviewed. 

Results: The questionnaires response rate was 96% since 134 questionnaires out 139 were returned. The introduction of leasehold significantly reduced benefits community forest association used to get. There is no significant association between being a member of Community Forest Association and getting employment in dryland forest conservation sinceChi square results were; χ2  =3.953, df=3, P=.267.

Conclusion: There is no special benefit the Community Forest Association gets from conservation of Kibwezi forest. For community to participate in forest management that have been leased there should be incentives. In fully leased forest, community forest members should jointly work with Kenya Forest Service as per the Participatory Forest Management. To get desired results of community forest participation in dryland, different actors should come up with innovative ways of conferring benefits to the Community Forest Association and compel the lessee to adhere to the legal requirement of continued access of benefits to the communities as it was before the lease.

Participatory forest management, lessee, lease, benefits, forest dwellers, conservation, community and stakeholders.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mugambi, J. M., Kagendo, J., Kweyu, M., & Mbuvi, M. T. E. (2020). Effects of Leasehold on Community Forest Association Benefits in Dryland Resources Management: A Case Study of Kibwezi Forest in Kenya. Asian Journal of Geographical Research, 3(3), 37-47. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i330109
Original Research Article


Ros-Tonena MA, Andelb TV, Morsello C, Otsukid K, Rosendo S, Scholz I. Forest-related partnerships in Brazilian Amazonia: There is more to sustainable forest management than reduced impact logging. Forest Ecology and Management.2008;16.

Pokharel B, Stadtmüller T, Pfund J. From degradation to restoration: An assessment of the enabling conditions for community forestry in Nepal. Natural Resources Management.2010;1.

FAO. The State of the World's Forests-Forest Pathways to Sustainable Development. Rome; 2018.

FAO. Trees, forests and land use in drylands The first global assessment. Rome: FAO;2016.

Tadesse S, WoldetsadikM, Senbeta F. Forest Users’ level of participation in a participatory forest management program in southwestern Ethiopia. Forest Science and Technology.2017;163-163.

Guthiga P, Mburu J. Local communities’ incentives for forest conservation: Case of Kakamegaforest in Kenya. 11thBiannual Conference of International Association for the Indonesia: Center for Development Research. 2006;2-29.

Newton A, Costillo R, Premoli C, JB, Williums G. Forest Landscape Restoration in the Drylands of LatinAmerica. Ecology and Society. 2012;21.

Bircha JC, Newtona AC, Aquinob CA, Cantarelloa E, Echeverríac C. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration. University of Minnesota;2010.

MusyokiJK, Mugwe J, Mutundu K, Muchiria M. Factors influencing level of participation of community forest associations in management forests in Kenya. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 2016;205-216.

Newton A, Tejedor N. Principles and Practice of Forest Landscape Restoration; Case studies from the drylands of Latin America. Switzerland: IUCN; 2011.

Schiappacasse I, Nahuelhual L, Vásquez F, Echeverría C. Assessing the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration in central Chile. Journal of Environmental Management.2012;38-45.

Francois B, Nora B, Alan G, Danae M The extent of forest. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2017;635-638.


Barrow E, Kamugisha-Ruhombe J, Nhantumbo I, Onyano I, Savodogo M. Who owns Africa's Forest? Exploring the Impacts of Forest Tunures Reform on Forest Ecosystem and Livelihood. Forest, Trees and Livelihood. 2016;25(2):132- 156.


Chirwa P, Larwanou M Overview of restoration and management practices in the degraded landscapes of the Sahelian and dry land forests and woodlands of East and southern Africa. World Agroforestry Center. 2017;5-15.

Bekele M, Bose P, Burger K, Fay P, Kassa H, Kariuki PM, Ingram V. Forests Management and Social Diversity in Africa and Asia. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. 2016;1.

Mohammed J, Kofi O-FA, Yusif H. Factors influencing households’ participation in forest management in the northern region of Ghana. Independent Journal of Management & Production.2017;1324-1340.

Koné L. Challenges and opportunities in the adoption of community forestry by local communities and indigenous peoples in the Republic of Congo. International Institute for Environment and Development; 2019.

Worku A, Auch E, Pretzsch J, Kassa H The significance of dry forest income for livelihood resilience: The case of pastrolistànd agro-pastrolist in dryland of southern Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics. 2014;41:51-59.


Bodonirina N, Reibelt LM, Stoudmann N, Chamagne J, Jones TG, Ravaka A, Ramam B. Approaching local perceptions of forest governance and livelihood challenges with companion modeling from a case study around Zahamena National Park, Madagascar. MDPI. 2018; 624.

Matiku P, Caleb M, Callistus O. The impact of Participatory forest management on local community livelihood in Arabuko Sokoke forest, Kenya. Conservation and Society.2013;112-129.

GoK. The Forest Conservation and Management Act. Nairobi: Kenya Gazette supppliment; 2016.

Elizabeth W, Gilbert O, Bernard K. Social economic Factors that Determine community Partiipation in Forest Management and Conservation of Adjucent Ecosystems: A case of Aberdare Forest, Kenya. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment. 2017;9(10):165-176.


Bastin FJ, Berrahmouni N, Grainge A. The extent of forest in dryland biomes. Reports Ecology. 2017;365(6338):635-638.


Kiringe JW, Mwaura F, Warinwa F. Characterization of Chyulu Hills Watershed Ecosystem Services in South-Eastern Kenya. Environment and Natural Resources Research. 2016;6(3).


Mbuvi T, Ndililo L, Cheboiwa J. Impacts of decentralized governance on forest conservation and community livelihoods in Kakamega and Loita Forests, Kenya. International Intitute for Science, Technology and Education. 2018;8(10).

Creswell, Plano C. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage;2011.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya Population Housing Census; Population distribution by administrative units. Nairobi: Government Press. 2009; 1A.

Retrieved 2018.

Mugenda OM, M A. Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) press;2003.