Open Access Original Research Article

A Geographical Analysis of Free Bus Shuttle System in Ondo State, Nigeria

E. F. Ogunbodede , A. S. Ale , B. A. Ogundare

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2023/v6i1171

The research aimed at examining the policy of the State Government in providing free shuttle buses for the students in the state. Seven towns in Ondo State, where free shuttle buses were operating were purposively selected. The selected Towns were Ikare, Owo, Akure, Ondo, Okitipupa, Irele and Igbokoda. Five public schools were randomly selected using balloting method in each of the Towns. In all, thirty-five schools were involved in the research. Furthermore, ten students from each arm of the classes (JSS I to SSS III) were selected using balloting method of sampling technique. In-depth interview were conducted on parents and Principal of the schools. Quantitative data were collected through structured questionnaire administered to students, teachers and operators of the shuttle buses. Secondary source of data include the use of maps (Ondo State map), published articles and journals. Information on school population and other information on public schools relevant to this research were collected from the State Ministry of Education. Data collected from the field were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. The result shows that since the commencement of the free bus shuttle, rate of lateness had been drastically reduced. Moral teaching and instructions given at the morning assembly had impact on larger number of students who come to school on time. The Result also revealed high rate of cognitive development of the students’ base on class’s attendance. The paper recommends that more buses should be provided for the schools and that all schools in the state should be included in the scheme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agroforestry Systems on Brazilian Legal Protected Lands: Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA) and Legal Reservation Areas (LRA)

Luciano Zanetti Pessôa Candiotto , Maristela da Costa Leite

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 15-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2023/v6i1172

Forests preservation and restoration are crucial, to sustain ecological and social benefits. Agroforestry systems are important land use restoration instruments because they allow food production combined with sustainable forest management. There are different kinds of agroforestry systems, and they can occur in degradedareas andin forested areas which are legally protected or not. In Brazil, where forests cover 46.5% of land area, deforestation continues and there are several challenges to protect and restore forests. Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA) and Legal Reservation Areas (LRA), which have been institutionalized in Brazilian Environmental Legislation require the maintenance of areas with native vegetation within rural properties restricting certain activities. Historically, they have not been duly respected by most land owners where riverbanks, springs, slopes and other areas have been occupied suppressing natural vegetation. Thus, there are possibilities for ecological management and use of PPA and mainly LRA, which seek to both preserve environmental resources and contribute to food production and income, especially in the campesino smallholders. This paper discusses possibilities and limitations of using agroforestry systems in PPA and LRA, pointing out that agroforestry systems are also feasible for restoring degraded areas and for expanding enriched areas and uses of their natural resources. Despite legal possibilities, a historical problem in Brazil is related to the lack of compliance with environmental legislation. Moreover, the scenario of deforestation and several difficulties to advance in environmental management in Brazil have been harming this conservationist possibilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Remote Sensing Indexes Assessment for Drought Monitoring Using Sentinel Satellite Imagery: A Case Study from Natanz County, Iran

Saravahidi, Amir Shahrokh Amini , Vahid Hatamzadeh

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Volume 6, Issue 1, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2023/v6i1175

In recent years, the problem of climate change and decrease in rainfall has become a big challenge in Iran, so it’s monitoring and control is very vital and necessary. In addition to the classical methods, nowadays with the progress of the space industry in the world, the use of remote sensing techniques has greatly helped to detect and monitor drought. The science of remote sensing and the use of satellite images is considered a useful and optimal tool for drought monitoring. In this project, we investigated the occurrence of drought using satellite images and remote sensing techniques. In this way, we have calculated the drought-related remote sensing indicators, including NDVI, VCI, TCI, and VHI, in the six-year period between 2015 and 2021 for Natanz county located in Isfahan province. In order to calculate the indicators, Sentinel satellite data was used, and to calculate the Standard Rainfall Index (SPI), data from the synoptic station of Natanz county was used. According to the general results obtained from the indicators, currently the drought situation in the southwestern region of this area has been increasing compared to the last five years, and in other regions we are witnessing the growth and occurrence of drought sporadically. The results of this research show that the best index for calculating and monitoring drought is the VCI index because it has a higher correlation with meteorological data and the SPI index.