Open Access Case study

An Empirical Investigation on Tourism Attractive Destinations and Spatial Behavioral Tourist Pattern Analysis in Tehran

Ali Movahed, Kamran Jafarpour Ghalehteimouri

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 18-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i130097

Cities are important tourist destinations and tourism has affected the urban environment. Urban tourism space is where tourism resources are located. The behavioural pattern of tourists also subordinates of tourism resources. Therefore, behavioural geography explains the spatial patterns of the behaviour of tourists as a cognitive-perceptual process. The behavioural school has attended to areas such as mental maps of behaviour, spatial behaviour of tourism, and perception of the environment. The main objective of this research is identifying the spatial behaviour of tourists in Tehran. The research method is descriptive-analytic and used secondary data, which are available in different reports, drafts, and related institutes and questionnaire to collect the research data. The research results show that the behaviour pattern of foreign tourists depends on tourism resources. These tourism resources are located in the central part of Tehran. In addition, the south entrance of the city (Imam Khomeini airport) is the most important entrances for foreign tourists and transporting pattern is from the south to the centre and north of Tehran. Since Tehran city has located between ways so stopping time is short in this city. In other words, visiting the city's attractions has focused on the type of historical-cultural tourism in the central part of Tehran.

Open Access Original Research Article

The study examined the effects of flood risk levels on food security, livelihood and socio-economic characteristics in the flood-prone areas of the core Niger Delta, Nigeria using a descriptive survey design and 790 respondents were selected with the aid of a multistage stratified sampling technique in Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers States, representing the core Niger Delta. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis and presentation of data. The findings of the study showed that 75.3% of the respondents agreed that basic food is scarce after all flood incident. However, 69.9% attested to the fact that growth and development of crops are affected when flood washes away farmlands. It can also be seen that flood increases food insecurity, unavailability of staple food and malnutrition as agreed by 78.3% of the total respondents. Furthermore, 77.1% of respondents agreed that flood increases the inability of plants to absorb essential nutrients necessary for proper growth while 71.4% agreed that flooding leads to the erosion or loss of the nutritional status of crops planted in the communities. Also, 69.9% agreed that the washing away of farmlands have led to chronic, long-lasting food insecurity in the communities. Further evidence from the study shows that 75.6% of respondents agreed that the incident of flood leads to acute food insecurity which affects the livelihood of the residents. It is also revealed that flood affects households or residents' investments (64.7%) and losing occupation and source of income from flooding leads to difficulty in caring for the children (60.9%). It is concluded that floods have reduced the efficiencies of farmland in terms of food production causing food insecurity, income reduction and poor livelihood among the residents of the core the Niger Delta States. The study, therefore, recommended that communities should advocate, promote and inculcate the spirit of the commitment of individuals and households towards the continued and holistic development (via social, economic, health, and infrastructural), food security, and increased livelihood in flood-prone communities. The Ministry of Agriculture should ensure that smart agriculture is adopted as a way out to resolve the issues of flood-induced food insecurity and structural measures like dams, culverts, drainages and ditches should be constructed by government and her intervention agencies to accommodate and reduce the runoff or overflow of floodwaters which causes severe social, economic and infrastructural damages or impacts during flooding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physio-chemical Parameters of Wastewater from Food Industries of Faisalabad

Muhammad Naveed, Rafakat Sajjad, Nida Talat, Umay Habiba, Muhammad Idrees, Muhammad Umer Mukhtar, Muhammad Waqar, Muhammad Afzaal Akram

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i130098

Food waste or food loss is food that is unnecessary or lost uneaten. The reasons of food waste or loss are various and take place at the stages of production, processing, transaction and utilization. The main objective of this study was to access the quality of groundwater in Faisalabad city.               From different food industries of Faisalabad water samples were collected to estimate their physicochemical parameters. The physiochemical parameters such as (pH, Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Calcium, Bi-carbonates, Total Hardness and chloride) were analyzed and their values were compared with the standard values. In the majority of the industries waste, water was not up to the mark. pH, TSS, EC and Chlorides values were out of range in most of the samples. On the completion of data physiochemical parameters of groundwater, statistical analysis was applied. Descriptive statistics were carried out to evaluate the significant differences between means of samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geo-Spatial Analysis of Urban Wetlands Loss in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

Wizor, Collins H., Wali, Elekwachi

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 35-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i130099

Urban wetlands make cities livable in many important ways. They reduce flooding, replenish drinking water, filter waste, provide urban green spaces, and are a source of livelihoods in most urban areas. This study aims to geo-spatially analyze urban wetland loss in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area (LGA), Rivers State, Nigeria. The study analyses land use /land cover changes (LULC) using Landsat7 UTM images of 2000, 2009 and 2018. The satellite images covering the area were acquired and analyzed using ArcGIS10.6. A total area of 25,773.39 sq km was delineated in the study area. After processing the imagery, five LULC classes where developed in ArcGIS environment, such as wetland, built-up area, vegetation, water bodies and bare surface. The study shows that the urban land-use of Obio-Akpor LGA had changed dramatically during the period of 18 years. In 2000, wetlands occupied the second-lowest classes with 9.12% (2352.15 of the total classes due to high level of urban development in the area while built-up areas occupied the third-highest classes with 17.62% (4543.83 of the total classes. In 2009, the study revealed that the built-up area (urban land use) rose to 19.3% (4975.11 and maintained an increase in urban growth due to changes from constructions of many roads and houses while wetlands also surprisingly experienced an increase and occupied the third-highest classes with 19.17% (4942.26 Evidence from the study show that 2018 witnessed an expansion in terms of developmental activities in all facets as the built-up area increased in three-fold size within the year, bare surface reduced to a class of 15.47% (4057.29 forcing developers to develop towards the wetland ecosystem. The wetlands, therefore, experienced a sharp decline to 4.91% (1266.75 due to rapid conversion of wetlands for housing development and excessive urban sprawl and its associated problems of inefficient use of land, urban space and the development of shanty towns/slums. The study concluded that there is a need for the wise use of wetland resources and improvement of institutional arrangement so that wetland policies can be fully integrated into the planning process across all disciplines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring and Exploring the Spatio-temporal Variation of Physico-chemical Variables of River Hadejia, Nigeria; Using Statistical Approach

Adam Babangida Maryam, Edegbene Augustine Ovie, Jibrin Gambo

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 49-61
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i130100

This study is aimed at assessing the ecological health condition of River Hadejia. The specific objectives are to; determine the monthly variation of the Physico-chemical parameters of River Hadejia. The physicochemical analysis carried out on the water samples are: pH, temperature, Electrical Conductivity, TDS, Turbidity, Nitrate, Phosphate, DO, BOD, Transparency, Depth and flow velocity which were determined by standard methods. The results of Physico-chemical parameters obtained were subjected to ANOVA using statistical package software, the mean conductivity values range between (104-127 ?S/cm). Nitrate in this study ranged from 0.04–0.80 mg/l and Station 3 had the highest nitrate value. The mean turbidity values obtained from the water samples of River Hadejia ranges from 124.56±11.06-149.52±23.11. Moreover, the temperature of Hadejia River varied from 13ºC to 28ºC. The highest temperature was in November at Station 1 while the lowest was recorded in February at station 1 which may be due to cold weather of the morning time.