Open Access Original Research Article

Copper toxicity in the ecosystems have becomes a global concern in recent times; therefore, there is need to curtail the increment of copper concentration within the environment. In this study, a total of 67 ground water samples were collected from the premises of Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, at a depth of 90 cm. The water samples were collected during the peak of the rainy season (September 2019); when the water table of the study area was very high, close to the soil surface. Copper concentration of all the water samples collected was measured using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that copper concentration in the study ranged between 1.01 mg/L and 2.105 mg/L. The spatial distribution of the copper concentration within the study area was determined using Geostatistical tool. Variation map developed from the results showed that the copper concentration does not spread uniformly across the study area. High copper concentration was generally recorded at the North Eastern and central parts of the school; while low copper concentration was recorded at the South Eastern part of the school. Furthermore, the results strongly showed that waste dump potentially affects the copper concentration of the ground water within the study area. This study results advocated the need for proper waste disposal with the polytechnic environment, and the adequate treatment of the groundwater before human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climatologically, the entire southern coastal belt of Bangladesh is most vulnerable than the other parts of the country due to its spatial geo-morphological settings. Global warming and sea level rise are already observed and predicted to be occurred more with time. These bring real negative consequences on the agricultural production and food security, and livelihood for the people live in the coastal areas. Therefore, the study was conducted to analyze the effect of global warming and sea level rise on the agriculture and food security in southern coastal areas of Bangladesh. Both primary and secondary sources of information were collected. Stakeholder consultation, direct field visits and interview of climate affected people in the coastal region were carried out for collecting information on land-use and cropping patterns and adaptation measures to be taken to boost crop production against global warming and sea level rise. By the middle and end of the twenty first century, global annual mean temperature is predicted to be increased about 1.5oC and 2.5oC, respectively. These projected warming will lead to about 14, 32 and 88 cm sea level rise by 2030, 2050 and 2100, respectively which would cause inundation of about 8, 10 and 16 percent of total land masses in Bangladesh. Most of the coastal parts and associated islands of Khulna and Barisal divisions and western part of Chattagram division lie within one meter from sea level where incursion of saline water is common. It is predicted that these areas will be inundated and unsuitable for crop production due to upcoming sea level rise. The predominant crop in entire coastal belt is transplanted Aman with sporadic occurrences of Aus rice. The land in Boro rice season either loosely occupied by mungbean, grass pea, cowpea, groundnut, soybean, potato, sweet potato, chili etc or remained fallow until the following monsoon. A systemic analysis of all of the cyclones that originated from the Bay of Bengal since 1961 indicated that most devastating cyclones formation occurred from last quarter of April through May and from middle of October to November just prior to the harvest of Boro and Aman crops, respectively. Therefore, Boro and Aman rice harvests are mostly unpredictable every year posing great threat to the food security of the coastal people. These areas are criss-crossed by innumerable water canals or channels especially in Barisal and Khulna divisions which can be utilized for Boro rice cultivation in dry season despite some levels of salinity. Cultivation of salt-tolerant crop varieties could mitigate such hindrances. Introduction of saline tolerant Boro rice in coastal cropping patterns and/or advancing the harvesting times by a fortnight in both Aman and Boro rice seasons to avert cyclonic havoc not only ensure food security but also turn the entire coastal belt into a food surplus region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Leasehold on Community Forest Association Benefits in Dryland Resources Management: A Case Study of Kibwezi Forest in Kenya

John Mwendwa Mugambi, Jane Kagendo, Mulaha Kweyu, Musingo Tito E. Mbuvi

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i330109

Aims: The aim of this paper was to investigate whether community forest association (CFA) get benefits as they conserve dryland forest that is also fully leased.

Study Design: The paper adapted descriptive survey design. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between the year 2018 December and 2020 January in Kibwezi forest.

Methodology: This study included 139 individuals who were issued with questionnaires (household survey) and 5 officials from forest department who were interviewed. 

Results: The questionnaires response rate was 96% since 134 questionnaires out 139 were returned. The introduction of leasehold significantly reduced benefits community forest association used to get. There is no significant association between being a member of Community Forest Association and getting employment in dryland forest conservation sinceChi square results were; ?2  =3.953, df=3, P=.267.

Conclusion: There is no special benefit the Community Forest Association gets from conservation of Kibwezi forest. For community to participate in forest management that have been leased there should be incentives. In fully leased forest, community forest members should jointly work with Kenya Forest Service as per the Participatory Forest Management. To get desired results of community forest participation in dryland, different actors should come up with innovative ways of conferring benefits to the Community Forest Association and compel the lessee to adhere to the legal requirement of continued access of benefits to the communities as it was before the lease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Static Water Level and Elevation Analyses of Shallow Hand-Dug Wells in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

Oluwaseun E. Odipe, Henry O. Sawyerr, Solomon O. Adewoye

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 48-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i330110

Aim: This study was conducted to reveal the depth to water level and surface elevation in selected hand-dug wells within Ilorin metropolis to assist in planning and management of water resources within the study area.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ilorin metropolis, North Central,           Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of twenty-six (26) hand-dug wells were sampled and relevant spatial information was acquired using a handheld GPS; data collected include: longitude, latitude, elevation and depth to water, then the static water level above sea level was estimated by the difference between depth to water and elevation. Statistical analyses such as mean and standard deviation were determined, also a base map, contour maps and 3-D elevation model of the study area were produced using ArcGIS 10.4 and Surfer 10 software.

Results: The depth to water within the study area ranges between 1.6 m and 13.3m, while elevation were between 284.1 m and 377.9 m, then the static water level ranges between 270.8 m and 371.4 m. The static water level contour map showed a radial and multidimensional groundwater flow pattern trending in the NE–SW and NW–SE directions while the 3-D elevation model revealed an undulating terrain.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the depth to groundwater is relatively shallow and this can guide proper development and management of groundwater resources within the metropolis.

Open Access Original Research Article

This research was to evaluate the quality of life of the urban dwellers in Yenagoa, Amarata and Ekeki cities to ascertain if there is a decline in the quality of life residents in those selected neighbourhoods with a view to highlight such causal factors. The study adopted the Passive-Observational survey design such that the research respondents were observed in-situ without experimental manipulation. The research population was purposively drawn, and data was drawn from primary and secondary sources. Objective and subjective dimensions of quality of life were viewed in the form of physical, social and economic domains were assessed with emphasis on the type of housing, recreational preferences and employment status of respondents. Findings indicate that the quality of life of residents in Yenagoa, Amarata and Ekeki has progressively declined from when Yenagoa was a local government headquarters to becoming a capital city of an oil and gas producing state. As evident, the predominant housing type is rooming housing that does not befit its status, with limited recreational space and a phenomenal 45% unemployment rate. Findings further depict a bleak and rapidly declining quality of life of residents. The study recommends that there should be deliberate government intervention to improve housing conditions, provision of adequate functional recreational facilities that would enhance social interaction and physical wellbeing. There should be deliberate government policy with the requisite framework to stimulate industrial growth to reduce the phenomenal unemployment were recommended.