Open Access Systematic Review Article

The principal cause of drought in Ethiopia is asserted to be the fluctuation of the global atmospheric circulation, which is triggered by Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (SSTA), occurring due to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. It can make extreme weather events more likely in certain regions in Ethiopia. ENSO episodes and events, and related weather events have an impact on seasonal rainfall distribution and rainfall variability over Ethiopia. Thus, the main aim of this review was to identify and organize the major impacts of El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on agriculture and adaptation strategies of rural communities in Ethiopia. Most of the rural communities in the country depend on rain-fed agriculture, and millions of Ethiopians have lost their source of food, water, and livelihoods due to drought triggered by ENSO. The coping strategies against ENSO induced climate change are creating a collective risk analysis, and Climate-Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) at the national level. In addition, community-based coping strategies for ENSO are integrated with watershed management, livelihood diversification and land rehabilitation to better cope with erratic rainfall and drought risks in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tourism has become one of the world’s largest industries, with an estimated US$ 3 trillion in annual revenues and expanding at an average rate of 4-5 per cent annually. Since the 1950s, the global market for international travel and tourism has exhibited uninterrupted growth. As the world is becoming a global village, (eco) tourists are looking for new attractions and these are well represented in Cameroon at large and in the Bamenda Highlands in particular. The Bamenda Highlands, on which the Babessi-Oku Axis is found, is one of the most spectacular ecotourism destinations in the country characterized by gentle undulating hilly savanna, patches of forest, lakes, waterfalls, mountains and an amazing cultural diversity. The main objective of this study was to examine the constraints to the development of ecotourism sector along the Babessi-Oku Axis and to develop a sustainable ecotourism management model to address these constraints. Data for this study were obtained through primary and secondary sources. Primary sources of data included: personal interviews, field observation, the use of camera, Geographic Positioning Systems (GPS), questionnaires and the use of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Secondary sources included: materials from published and unpublished works related to the current study, maps and the exploitation of aerial photographs. Findings revealed that there are a plethora of constraints plaguing the ecotourism sector along the Babessi-Oku Axis and these include: degradation of the Oku Montane Forest, poaching, forest destruction for agricultural purposes, extinction of fauna biodiversity, and lack of community participation among others. An ecotourism development model for the study area has been developed in order to sustainably address these ecotourism constraints along the Babessi-Oku Axis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stakeholders’ Perception of the Triggering Mechanisms and Determinants of Flooding in Limbe, South West Region of Cameroon

Robert Njilla Mengnjo Ngalim, Simbo Terence Nunyui

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 17-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i430113

The study investigates stakeholders’ perception of the triggering mechanisms and determinants of flooding episodes in Limbe. Primary data were collected using questionnaires administered in ten (10) study sites. Interviews were conducted, field observation and measurement carried out on the drain sizes, height and duration of flooding. Secondary data were obtained from text books and journals. Data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Findings revealed that a plethora of triggering mechanisms of flooding were identified and analysed under natural and anthropogenic factors. However, of all these factors, prolonged rainfall and the inadequacy and narrowness of drains were perceived to be the most important triggering mechanisms of flooding in Limbe. The study concluded that flooding is a hazard that has been plaguing the city of Limbe for close to two decades and therefore needs appropriate flood control strategies to be employed to effectively control flooding since it cannot be completely stopped in some parts of Limbe. Since the inadequacy / narrowness of drains was perceived as the most important triggering mechanism of flooding in Limbe, it was recommended that wide drains be constructed in all the flood prone and flood affected areas in the city of Limbe.

Open Access Original Research Article

When a bourgeoning population faces water supply scarcity dilemma, stakeholders and interests emerge to offer multivariate water harvesting systems to affected communities. Stakeholder provision of water resources have deployed varied indigenous and exogenous technologies for domestic uses from natural surface to ground water stores. Community technological prowess and stratagems are functions of relief and climatic traits within a socio-political setting and that is why this paper sets out to assess indigenous and exogenous technologies of stakeholder in community water harvesting systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected for water sources, water demands, stakeholders, harvesting systems, technologies of extraction and water management through field observations, questionnaires and interviews. Findings revealed that few inhabitants have exogenous water supply technology and greater proportions depend on low technologies which paradoxically proved to be more sustainable than the high technologies. Stakeholder involvement motifs self-pride and politically driven and so the dearth of village water committees accounting for very derisory participation rates in water sourcing and management. The development and rehabilitation of alternative water sources is vital for sustainable water resource management and not just reliance on technological knowhow in Balikumbat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Considerations on the Main Confrontations of Pollution by the Black Sea Ecosystem

Bogdan-Vasile Cioruța, Mirela Coman

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 46-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i430116

Until the beginning of the 21st century, concerns related to environmental management have been reduced only to voluntary initiatives of nature lovers, rarely materializing in specific protection and conservation measures carried out by the authorities or administrators of those areas. As the concern for the management of protected areas, in general, of marine areas of community interest, in particular, is relatively new in Romania, and the information related to this subject is relatively little, especially those regarding marine ecosystems. We considered this study as useful to those with concerns in the field. The Black Sea ecosystem, following the analyzes carried out on the basis data from the media and the literature consulted, as well as following other observations, we concluded that it has a significant pollution with plastic waste, and less with petroleum products resulting from accidents and spills. At the same time, the protected areas associated with the Black Sea, as well as the marine ecosystem itself, are far from being affected by such incidents. Through this paper, we aim to review some general aspects of the main problems facing the Black Sea ecosystem, an ecosystem that has great potential to become a sustainable model of community development, promoting in them, more than in other areas, sustainable resource management. We also aim to highlight the evolution of pollution of the ecosystem considered, the study itself relating to the principles of management of protected areas of community interest and good practice policies specific to environmental management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Raffia Forest Exploitation and Socio-Economic Development within Nkongsamba Urban Council

Gideon Samba, Japhet Chianebeng Kuma

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 70-80
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i430118

In Nkongsamba of the Littoral region, raffia palms exploitation have offered an impressive assortment of products for food,  housing construction and households equipment to many of the community members who greatly depend on this Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) for livelihood. This study examines the relationship between raffia forest exploitation and socio-economic development within the Nkongsamba urban council in the Littoral Region of Cameroon. To achieve the main aim of the study, specific objectives were set to examine the socio-economic activities related to raffia forest exploitation in Nkongsamba, assess the relationship between raffia forest activity and socio-economic development of Nkongsamba. Data for the study were obtained through primary and secondary sources using a mixed design method of inquiry which combines both quantitative and qualitative approaches to explore data on raffia forest and its related activities in the study area. Purposive and systematic sampling techniques were equally employed for a sample population of 155 that was drawn using Miller & Brewer Sample determination Method (2003). The data generated were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The major results from the analysis of the findings indicate that raffia activities have contributed enormously to socio-economic development. The researcher used linear regression statistics to determine if raffia forest activities have any significant impact on socio-economic development at .05 significant levels. The results showed that the calculated p-value .014 was not up to the significant level .05 placed for the study. This therefore accepts the fact that raffia forest activities have significant effect on socio-economic development. Base on this finding, the study recommended that, in view of the fact that raffia exploitation is the main economic base activity to majority of households in the area under study, the government should enact appropriate polices to promote the potentials of raffia farming households. Such households should be provided with inputs such as improved raffia harvesting materials at affordable rates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Implications of Philately in Promoting the Protected Natural Areas (V) - Rodna Mountains National Park

Bogdan-Vasile Cioruța, Mirela Coman, Andrei Nicolae Helindian, Alexandru Leonard Pop

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 81-93
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i430119

As part of the natural heritage, our country (Romania) is a blessed place with many areas of unique beauty, with places where the spectacle of nature delights your eyes and take your breath with every step. Constantly promoting philatelic themes that use natural wealth and the beauty of our country as subjects, the administrative entity (with various names over time), nowadays Romfilatelia, responsible for issuing postage stamps performs a series of postage stamps in whose images are found rarities of flora and fauna, a miracle of nature. To show that protected natural areas have a special beauty, and to make them known to everyone and also to show the implications of thematic philately in the promotion of protected areas in the country and abroad, in this paper, we bring to the discussion the most significant philatelic peculiarities (stamps, first-day covers, illustrated and semi-illustrated postcard, maximum postcards, etc) related to the Rodna Mountains National Park.

Open Access Original Research Article

Implications of Philately in Promoting the Protected Natural Areas (IV): Domogled - Cerna Valley National Park

Bogdan-Vasile Cioruța, Alexandru Leonard Pop, Mirela Coman

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 94-102
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i430120

Romania is a blessed place with many areas of unique beauty, and with the most interesting species of flora and fauna for research - as part of the natural heritage - with places where the spectacle of nature delights your eyes and take your breath with every step. Constantly promoting philatelic themes that use natural wealth and the beauty of our country as subjects, the administrative entity (with various names over time) responsible for issuing postage stamps performs a series of postage stamps in whose images are found rarities of flora and fauna, a miracle of nature. To show that protected natural areas have a special beauty, and to make them known to everyone, in this paper, we bring to the discussion the most significant philatelic peculiarities in the Domogled - Cerna Valley National Park. Also, through this paper, we tried to highlight the main post-philatelic effects (postage stamps, first-day covers - FDCs, illustrated postcards, maximum postcards, occasional envelopes, and other postal circulations), which appeared at the level of Romanian thematic philately, concerning the studied area. Through their prism, we tried to show that besides the role of ambassador of beauties and national heritage, the thematic philately has implications in the protection of species of flora and fauna. About other areas of interest, where the philatelic products were not highlighted, it can be mentioned that in the considered area (Domogled - Cerna Valley National Park) the management of the protected area only had to gain.

Open Access Original Research Article

GIS Approach for the Analysis of the Socio-Sanitary Stakes of Water Use in the Lobo Watershed in Nibehibe (Central-Western Côte d'Ivoire)

Arthur Brice Konan- Waidhet, Fanraban Fabrice Toure, Ali Diarra, Tano Jean Jacques Koua, Mahamadou Koita, Affoue Berthe Yao

Asian Journal of Geographical Research, Page 103-115
DOI: 10.9734/ajgr/2020/v3i430121

Water is a precious natural resource that is essential for many uses, but its quality is faced with several problems, including pollution linked to human activities, hence the need to contribute to improving the quality of drinking water. Given the importance of the resource, the health of the population in terms of hygiene needs and the quality of the water consumed is paramount. It is within this framework that this work falls within the scope of this project, the objective of which is to analyze the health impacts to which the populations are exposed due to the use of water in the Lobo watershed in Nibéhibé. To achieve this objective, the working method was based on literature review and field surveys. The documentary research consisted in circumscribing the contours of the subject in order to better understand it. As for the field surveys, they were dominated by interviews and a questionnaire addressed to households and health structures. Using the simple random selection method without discount and the use of a statistical equation, we found a sample of 384 households to be surveyed, distributed in three departments (Daloa, Vavoua and Zoukougbeu). Population surveys, combined with spatially referenced data under GIS, made it possible to assess not only the spatial distribution of the importance of water-related diseases, but also the areas at health risk. The results highlighted health risk indicators that expose households to water-related diseases linked to the mode of water supply. Also, the contraction of these diseases by households is due to the uncontrolled use of multiple uses and the risky behavior of the population with regard to hygiene and sanitation practices. In addition, we note that those in rural areas are the most affected because of the insufficient level of access to drinking water and adequate sanitation. Thus, these diseases cause great loss of human life and contribute to the disorganization of the social structure.